The Long Poem: Innovative Genre or Contradiction in Terms

Bibliography compiled by

Wolfram R. Keller

This bibliography is not meant to be all-inclusive but represent a selection of articles and monographs which students might find of interest for their seminar presentations or term papers.  Please keep in mind that not all of the listed items are available at the University of Marburg. In order to avoid unnecessary expenses, however, it is worth checking the seminar folder in the library as well; some of the material might already be on inter-library loan.

For additions, comments and queries, please contact <>.

downlaod complete bibliography as pdf-file


1. Background Reading

2. Margaret Atwood's Journals of Susanna Moodie

3. Hart Crane's The Bridge

4. T.S. Eliot's Waste Land

5. Ted Hughes's Crow

6. Robert Kroetsch's Seed Catalogue

7. Ezra Pound's Mauberley

8. Derek Walcott's Omeros

9. Walt Whitman's Song of Myself

10. William Carlos Williams's Paterson

1. Background Reading

Allen, Dick.  "The Forest for the Trees: Preliminary Thoughts on Evaluating the Long Poem." The Kenyon Review 5.2 (1983): 78-82.

Barbour, Douglas.  "Extended Forms: One Book & Then Another: The Canadian Long Poem."  Australian Canadian Studies 5.2 (1987): 81-89.

Baker, Peter.  Obdurate Brilliance: Exteriority and the Modern Long Poem.  Gainesville: U of Florida P, 1991.

Barrell, John and Harriet Guest.  "On the Use of Contradiction: Economics and Morality in the Eighteenth-Century Long Poem."  The Eighteenth-Century: Theory, Politics, English Literature.  New York: Methuen, 1987. 121-43.

Bentley, D.M.R.  Mimic Fires: Accounts of Early Long Poems on Canada.  Montreal, QC: McGill-Queen's UP, 1994.

-----.  "Savage, Degenerate, and Dispossessed." Canadian Literature 124/125 (1990): 76-90.

Bove, Paul.  The World and Earth of William Carlos Williams: Paterson as a 'Long Poem.'" Genre 11 (1978): 575-96.

Conte, Joseph M.  "Seriality and the Contemporary Long Poem."  Sagetrieb 11.1-2 (1992): 35-45.

Dickie, Margaret.  On the Modernist Long Poem.  Iowa City: U of Iowa P, 1986.

Diggory, Terence.  "Image and Statement in the Late Poetics of William Carlos Williams."  William Carlos Williams Review 19.1-2 (1993): 6-14.

Feirstein, Frederick.  "The Other Long Poem."  The Kenyon Review 5.2 (1983): 52-56.

Friedman, Susan Stanford.  "When a 'Long' Poem Is a 'Big' Poem: Self-Authorizing Strategies in Women's Twentieth-Century 'Long Poems."' Lit:-Literature-Interpretation-Theory 2.1. (1990): 9-25.

Gardner, Thomas.  Discovering Ourselves in Whitman: The Contemporary American Long Poem. Urbana : U of Illinois P, 1989.

-----.  "Reading the Contemporary Long Poem."  Sagetrieb 11.1-2 (1992): 47-66.

Gioia, Dana.  "The Dilemma of the Long Poem."  The Kenyon Review 5.2 (1983): 19-23.

Godard, Barbara.  "Epi(pro)logue: In Pursuit of the Long Poem."  Open Letter 6.2-3 (1985): 301-35.

Grosholz, Emily.  "Imagining Human Action."  The Kenyon Review 5.2 (1983): 64-66.

Jones, Manina.  "The Language of Paradox." Canadian Poetry 31 (1992): 104-16.

Keller, Lynn.  "The Twentieth-Century Long Poem."  The Columbia History of American Poetry.  Ed. Jay Parini and Brett C. Miller.  New York: Columbia UP, 1993. 534-63.

Kohrung, Klaus.  Die Formen des "Long Poem" in der modernen amerikanischen Literatur.  Heidelberg: Winter, 1967.

Kroetsch, Robert.  "For Play and Entrance: The Contemporary Canadian Long Poem."  Sagetrieb 7.1 (1988): 79-97.

Li, Victor P.H.  "The Vanity of Length: The Long Poem as Problem in Pound's Cantos and Williams' Paterson." Genre 19.1 (1986): 3-20.

Loeffelholz, Mary.  "History as Conjugation: Stein's Stanzas in Meditation and the Literary History of the Modernist Long Poem."  Gendered Modernisms: American Women Poets and Their Readers. Ed. Margaret Dickle and Thomas Travisano. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1996. 26-42.

The Long Poem: Special Issue. Irish University Review 13.1 (1983).

Mandel, Eli.  "The Long Poem: Journal and Origin."  CEA-Critic 50.1 (1987): 74-83.

Martens, Klaus.  "Race for Definition: The Long Poem as 'Sequence.'"  Poetry and Epistemology: Turning Points in the History of Poetic Knowledge. Ed. Roland Hagenbuchle and Laura Skandera. Eichstatter Beitrage 20: 6. Regensburg : Pustet, 1986. 350-365.

Mazoff, C.D.  Anxious Allegiances: Legitimizing Identity in the Early Canadian Long Poem.  Montreal, QC: McGills-Queen's UP, 1998.
-----.  "Strategies of Colonial Legitimation in the Early Canadian Long Poem."  Canadian Poetry 36 (1995): 81-113.

McDowell, Robert.  "The Many Guises of the Long Poem."  Crazyhorse 46 (1993): 7-13.

McHale, Brian.  "Telling Stories Again: On the Replenishment of Narrative in the Postmodernist Long Poem." Yearbook of English Studies 30 (2000): 250-62.

Munton, Ann.  "Return, Toronto to the Tantramar: Regional Poetics, the Long Poem, and Douglas Lochhead." Essays on Canadian Writing 31 (1985): 251-261.

-----.  "The Structural Horizons of Prairie Poetics: The Long Poem, Eli Mandel, Andrew Suknaski, and Robert Kroetsch."  Dalhousie Review 63.1 (1983): 69-97.

Oeste, Robert.  Arno Holz: The Long Poem and the Tradition of Poetic Experiment.  Abhandlungen zur Kunst-, Musik-, und Literaturwissenschaft 325. Bonn: Bouvier, 1982.

Oxley, William.  "The Rebirth of the Long Poem in Our Time."  Poetry Now: Contemporary British and Irish Poetry in the Making.  Ed. Holger Klein, Sabine Coelsch-Foisner and Wolfgang Gortschacher.  Tuebingen: Stauffenburg, 1999. 43-48.

Prince, F.T.  "Gravity and the Long Poem."  English Studies Today, Third  Series: Lectures and Papers Read at the Fifth Conference of the International Association of Professors of English Held at Edinburgh and Glasgow, August 1962.  Ed. G.I. Duthie. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 1964. 81-88.

Proffitt, Edward.  "The Epic Lyric: The Long Poem in the Twentieth Century."  Research Studies 46 (1978): 20-27.

Silliman, Ron.  "I Wanted to Write Sentences: Decision Making in the American Longpoem."  Sagetrieb 11.1-2 (1992): 11-20.

Skloot, Floyd.  "Out of Time: Reflections on the Long Poem."  Crazyhorse 46 (1994): 9-21.

Taylor, Andrew.  "Imagism, Cubism and the Long Poem."  Meanjin 37 (1978): 362-69.

Terry, Richard.  "Transitions and Digressions in the Eighteenth-Century Long Poem."  Studies in English Literature 32.3 (1992): 495-510.

Ullyatt, A.G.  "The Hum of Omissions/The Chant of Vacancies: Prologue to a Study of the American Long Poem Tradition and the Contribution of Some Nineteenth-Century Afro-American Poets." American Studies International 34.1 (1996): 43-54.

Wacker, Norman. "Epic and the Modern Long Poem: Virgil, Blake and Pound."  Comparative Literature 42.2 (1990): 126-143.

Weiss, Ted.  "The Long Poem: Sequence or Consequence."  The American Poetry Review 22.4 (1993): 37-47.

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2. Margaret Atwood's Journals of Susanna Moodie

Boutelle, Ann Edwards.  "Margaret Atwood, Margaret Laurence, and Their Nineteenth-Century Forerunners." Faith of a (Woman) Writer. Ed. Harris Alice Kessler and William McBrien. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1988. 41-47.

Gorjup, Branko.  "New Arrivals, Further Departures -- The Euro-Immigrant Experience in Canada." Ethnic Literature and Culture in the U.S.A., Canada and Australia. Ed. Igor Maver. Frankfurt: Lang, 1996. 263-71.

Grace, Sherrill E.  "Quest for Peaceable Kingdom: Urban/Rural Codes in Roy, Laurence and Atwood." Women Writers and the City: Essays in Feminist Literary Criticism. Ed. Susan Merrill Squier. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 1984. 193-209.

Groening, Laura.  "The Journals of Susanna Moodie: A Twentieth-Century Look at a Nineteenth-Century Life." Studies in Canadian Literature/Etudes en Litterature Canadienne 8.2 (1992): 166-80.

Johnston, Susan.  "Reconstructing Wilderness: Margaret Atwood's Reading of Susanna Moodie."  Canadian Poetry 31 (1992): 28-54.

Jolly, Roslyn.  "Transformations of Caliban and Ariel: Imagination and Language in David Malouf, Margaret Atwood, and Seamus Heaney."  World Literature Written in English 26.2 (1986): 295-330.

Kadar, Marlene.  "The Journals of Susanna Moodie as Life Writing."  Teaching Margaret Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale and Other Works. Ed. Sharon Wilson, Thomas B. Friedman, and Shannon Hengen. New York: MLA, 1996. 146-52.

Lane, Patrick.  "The Unyielding Phrase." Canadian Literature 122/123 (1989): 57-64.

McCombs, Judith.  "Atwood's Haunted Sequence: The Circle Game, The Journals of Susanna Moodie, and Power Politics."  The Art of Margaret Atwood: Essays in Criticism. Ed. Arnold E. Davidson and Cathy N. Davidson. Toronto: Anansi, 33-54.

-----.  "Crossing Over: Atwood's Wilderness Journals and Surfacing."  Essays on the Literature of Mountaineering. Ed. Armand E. Singer. Morgantown: West Virginia UP, 1982. 106-17.

Molnar, Judit.  "The Coalescence of Natural and Mental Landscapes in Margaret Atwood's The Journals of Susanna Moodie."  Hungarian Studies in English 22 (1991): 127-32.

Relke, Diana M.A.  "Double Voice, Single Vision: A Feminist Reading of Margaret Atwood's Journals of Susanna Moodie."  Atlantis 9.1 (1983): 35-48.

Simmons, Jes.  "'Crept in upon by Green': Susanna Moodie and the Process of Individuation." Margaret Atwood: Reflection and Reality. Ed. Beatrice Mendez-Egle. Living Authors Series 6. Edinburg: Pan. American Univ., 1987. 139-53.

Smith, Erin.  "Gender and National Identity in The Journals of Susanna Moodie." Frontiers 13.2 (1993): 75-88.

Staines, David and Charles Pachter. The Journals of Susanna Moodie.  Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.

Weir, Lorraine.  "Meridians of Perception: A Reading of The Journals of Susanna Moodie." The Art of Margaret Atwood: Essays in Criticism. Ed. Arnold E. Davidson and Cathy N. Davidson. Toronto: Anansi, 1981. 69-79.

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3. Hart Crane's The Bridge

Beulens, Gert.  "The American Poet and His City: Crane, Williams and Olson: Perceptions of Reality in American Poetry (1930-1960)."  English Studies 73.3 (1992): 248-63.

Brunner, Edward.  Splendid Failure: Hart Crane and the Making of The Bridge.  Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1985.

Chaffin, Tom.  "Toward a Poetics of Technology: Hart Crane and the American Sublime."  The Southern Review 20.1 (1984): 68-81.

Cowley, Malcolm.  "Two Views of The Bridge.Sewanee Review 89.2 (1981): 191-205.

Crivelli, Renzo S.  "Da London Bridge a Brooklyn Bridge: La figura di Lazzaro in Eliot e Crane." Ipotesi 80 25/26.1-2 (1989): 25-32.

Dembo, L.S.  "Failed Splendor: Edward Brunner's Remaking of The Bridge.Review 7 (1985): 197-205.

Dickie, Margaret.  "The Backward Flight of The Bridge.American Literature 57.1 (1985): 79-97.

Doeren, Suzanne Clark.  "Theory of Culture, Brooklyn Bridge, and Hart Crane's Rhetoric of Memory." The Bulletin of the Midwest Modern Language Association 15.1 (1982): 18-28.

Eda, Takaomi.  "William Carlos Williams and The Bridge."  Chiba Review 10 (1988): 58-73.

Franciosi, Robert.  "Hart Crane, Lola Ridge, and Charles Reznikoff: A Note on the Early Conception of The Bridge." Essays in Literature 11.2 (1984): 305-11.

Gardner, Jared.  "'Our Native Clay': Racial and Sexual Identity and the Making of Americans in The Bridge." American Quarterly 44.1 (1992): 24-50.

Giles, Paul.  Hart Crane: The Contexts of The Bridge.  Cambridge Studies in American Literature and Culture. Cambridge: CUP, 1986.

Higginbotham, Virginia.  "Garcia Lorca and Hart Crane: Two Views from the Bridge."  Neophilologus 66.2 (1982): 219-26.

Irwin, John T.  "Back Home Again in Indiana: Hart Crane's The Bridge."  Romantic Revolutions: Criticism and Theory.  Ed. Kenneth R. Johnston et al. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1990. 269-96.

-----.  "Foreshadowing and Foreshortening: The Prophetic Vision of Origins in Hart Crane's The Bridge." Word and Image 1.3 (1985): 288-312.

-----.  "The Triple Archetype: The Presence of Faust in The Bridge.Arizona Quarterly 50.1 (1994): 51-73.

Krauss, Jennifer. "'Times Square to Columbus Circle': The Dual Format of Hart Crane's Bridge." Essays in Literature 12.2 (1985): 273-83.

Martin, Robert K.  "Cummings, Crane, and The Bridge.Books at Brown 27 (1979): 47-63.

-----.  "Painting and Primitivism: Hart Crane and the Development of an American Expressionist Esthetic." Mosaic 14.3 (1981): 49-62.

Nilsen, Helge Normann. Hart Crane Divided Vision: An Analysis of The Bridge.  Oslo : Universitetsforlaget, 1980.

Pease, Donald.  "Blake, Whitman, Crane: The Hand of Fire."  William Blake and the Moderns. Ed. Robert J. Bertholf and Annette S. Levitt. Albany, NY: SUNY, 1982. 15-38.

-----.  "Hart Crane and the Tradition of Epic Prophecy."  Critical Essays on Hart Crane. Ed. David R. Clark. Boston: Hall, 1982. 255-74.

-----.  "Blake, Crane, Whitman, and Modernism: A Poetics of Pure Possibility."  PMLA 96.1 (1981): 64-85.

Pire, Beatrice.  "Hart Crane et les nouvelles anatomies new-yorkaises."  Revue Francaise d'Etudes Americaines 67 (1996): 22-32.

Poger, Sidney.  "Crane and Montague: 'The Pattern History Weaves.'"  Eire/Ireland 16.4 (1981): 114-24.

Reed, Jeremy.  "Hart Crane and the Riddle of the Sailor in 'Cutty Sark.'"  Modern American Poetry.  Ed. R.W. Herbie Butterfield. Totowa, NJ: Vision/Barnes & Noble, 1984. 127-41.

Santos, Maria Irena Ramalho de Sousa.  "Atlantic Poets: 'Discovery' as Metaphor and Ideology." The Continuing Presence of Walt Whitman: The Life after the Life. Ed. Robert K. Martin. Iowa City: U of Iowa P, 1992. 152-66.

Schultz, Susan M.  "The Success of Failure: Hart Crane's Revisions of Whitman and Eliot in The Bridge." South Atlantic Review 54.1 (1989): 55-70.

Shapiro, Lindsay Stamm.  "William Lescaze and Hart Crane: A Bridge between Architecture and Poetry." Syracuse University Library Associates Courier 19.1 (1984): 25-28.

Sharp, Michael.  "Theme and Free Variation: The Scoring of Hart Crane's The Bridge." Arizona Quarterly 37.3 (1981): 197-213.

Shawcross, John T.  "Influence for the Worse? Hart Crane Rethinks Milton."  The Visionary Company 1.2 (1982): 71-89.

Slade, Joseph W.  "Hart Crane and John Dos Passos."  American Literature and Science. Ed. Robert J. Scholnick. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 1992. 172-93.

Sugg, Richard P.  "Origins and Originality in Hart Crane's American Epic."  The Origins and Originality of American Culture. Ed. Frank Tibor. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1984. 149-56.

Tingley, Stephanie.  "Hart Crane's 'Quaker Hill': A Plea for a Positive Perspective." English Language Notes 22.1 (1984): 55-62.

Trachtenberg, Alan. "Cultural Revisions in the Twenties: Brooklyn Bridge as 'Usable Past.'"  The American Self: Myth, Ideology, and Popular Culture. Ed. Sam B. Girgus. Albuquerque: U of Mexico P, 1981. 58-75.

Ullyatt, A.G.  "Hart Crane: The Bridge." Unisa English Studies 13.2 (1975): 24-30.

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4. T.S. Eliot's Waste Land

Abboud, Robert.  "Jeremiah's Mad Again." The New England Quarterly 69.1 (1996): 75-90.

Abdoo, Sheryl.  "Woman as Grail in T.S. Eliot's Waste Land."  The Centennial Review 28.1 (1984): 48-60.

Ackerley, Chris.  "'Who Are These Hooded Hordes...': Eliot's The Waste Land and Hesse's Blick ins Chaos."  AUMLA 82 (1994): 103-06.

Adell, Sandra.  "The Big E(llison)'s Texts and Intertexts: Eliot, Burke and the Underground Man."  College Language Association Journal 37.1 (1994): 377-401.

Bachtin, Nicholas.  "English Poetry in Greek: Notes on a Comparative Study of Poetic Idioms." Poetics Today 6.3 (1985): 333-56.

Bagchee, Shyamal, ed. T.S. Eliot: A Voice Descanting: Centenary Essays.  London: Macmillan, 1990.

Bedient, Clavin.  He Do the Police in Different Voices: The Waste Land and Its Protagonists.  Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1987.

Bishop, Jonathan.  "A Handful of Words: The Credibility of Language in The Waste Land." Texas Studies in Literature and Language 27.2 (1985): 154-77. Rpt. in: T.S. Eliot: An Anthology of Recent Criticism. Ed. Tapan Kumar Basu. Delhi: Pencraft, 1993.

Blasing, Mutlu Konuk.  "The Waste Land: Gloss and Glossary."  Essays in Literature 9.1 (1982): 97-105.

Bloom, Harold, ed. T.S. Eliot's The Waste Land.  Modern Critical Interpretations. New York: Chelsea, 1987.

Bose, Purnima.  "'End-Anxiety' in T.S. Eliot's The Waste Land: Narrative Closure and the End of Empire." Yeats-Eliot Review 9.4 (1988): 157-60.

Bouyssou, Roland.  "Ambiguite et paradoxe dans la poesie de T.S. Eliot."  Caliban 29 (1992): 73-84.

Brooker, Jewel Spears.  "'The Second Coming' and The Waste Land: Capstones of the Western Civilisation Course."  College Literature 13.3 (1986): 240-53.

-----, ed.  Approaches to Teaching Eliot's Poetry and Plays.  Approaches to Teaching World Literature 19. New York: MLA, 1988.

Brooks, Cleanth.  The Waste Land: A Prophetic Document."  The Yale Review 78.2 (1989): 318-32.

Bufithis, Philip.  "William Carlos Williams Writing against The Waste Land.Sagetrieb 8.1-2 (1989): 215-23.

Burke, William.  "Reading through The Waste Land.Yeats-Eliot Review 9.3 (1988): 75-92.

Chandran, K. Narayana.  "'Shantih' in The Waste Land.American Literature 61.4 (1989): 681-83.

Childs, Donald J.  "Stetson in The Waste Land."  Essays in Criticism 38.2 (1988): 131-48.

Coates, Christopher.  "Eliot's Baudelaire: 'Christ the tiger' in the 'fourmillante cite.'" Yeats-Eliot Review 9.4 (1988): 149-52.

Cohen, Philip.  "The Waste Land, 1921: Some Developments of the Manuscript's Verse." The Journal of the Midwest Modern Language Association 19.1 (1986): 12-20.

Cole, Merrill.  "Empire of the Closet." Discourse 19.3 (1997): 67-91.

Cooper, John Xiros. T.S. Eliot and the Politics of Voice: The Argument of The Waste Land.  Studies in Modern Literature 79. Ann Arbor: Univ. Microfilms Internat. Research P, 1987.

Cowan, Laura, ed.  T.S.Eliot: Man and Poet, I.  Orono: U of Maine P, 1990.

Cowan, S.A.  "Echoes of Donne, Herrick, and Southwell in Eliot's Waste Land.Yeats-Eliot Review 8.1-2 (1986): 96-102.

Crawford, Fred D.  Mixing Memory and Desire: The Waste Land and British Novels.  University Park: Pennsylvania State UP, 1982.

Crawford, Robert.  "Rudyard Kipling in The Waste Land.Essays in Criticism 36.1 (1986): 32-46.

-----.  "A Drunk Man Looks at the Waste Land.Scottish Literary Journal 14.2 (1987): 62-78.

Creekmore, Betsey B.  "The Tarot Fortune in The Waste Land.ELH 49.4 (1982): 908-28.

D'Ambrosio, Vinni Marie.  "Tzara in The Waste Land.T.S. Annual 1 (1990): 103-16.

Davidson, Harriet.  "Improper Desire: Reading the Waste Land.The Cambridge Companion to T.S. Eliot. Ed. A. David Moody. Cambridge: CUP, 1994. 121-31.

Dean, Michael P.  "T.S. Eliot's Tiresias: A Unifying Force in The Waste Land.Publications of the Mississippi Philological Association (1984): 125-33.

Deana, Patrick.  "Rhetoric and Affect: Eliot's Classicism, Pound's Symbolism, and the Drafts of The Waste Land." Journal of Modern Literature 18.1 (1992): 77-93.

Diepeveen, Leonard.  "Shifting Metaphors: Interarts Comparisons and Analogy."  Word and Image 5.2 (1989): 206-13.

Doherty, Gerald.  "The Waste Land as Modernist Discourse."  Orbis Litterarum 40.3 (1985): 244-57.

Douglass, Paul.  "Reading the Wreckage: De-Encrypting Eliot's Aesthetics of Empire."  Twentieth Century Literature 43.1 (1997): 1-26.

Easthope, Antony.  "The Waste Land as Dramatic Monologue."  English Studies 64.4 (1983): 330-44.

Edwards, Michael.  "Rewriting the Waste Land."  European Literature and  Theology in the Twentieth Century: Ends of Time. Ed. David Jasper and Colin Crowder.  New York: St. Martin's, 1990. 70-85.

Erwin, Mark.  "Wittgenstein and The Waste Land.Philosophy and Literature 21.2 (1997): 279-91.

Erzgräber, Willi.  "Zu T.S. Eliot's The Waste Land; V. 60-76."  Archiv für das Studium der Neueren Sprachen und Literaturen 217.2 (1980): 369-74.

Evans, Dansby.  "Chaucer and Eliot: The Poetics of Pilgrimage."  Medieval Perspectives 9 (1994): 41-47.

Firchow, Peter.  "Sunlight in the Hofgarten: The Waste Land and Pre-1914 Munich."  Anglia 111.3-4 (1993): 447-58.

Franciosi, Robert.  "The Poetic Space of The Waste Land.American Poetry 2.2 (1985): 17-29.

Froula, Christine.  "Eliot's Grail Quest: Or, the Lover, the Police, and The Waste Land." The Yale Review 78.2 (1989): 235-53.

Gassenmeier, Michael.  "T.S. Eliot's Waste Land: Paradigma welcher Moderne?"  Anglia 108.1-2 (1990): 96-112.

Gibbons, Thomas.  "The Waste Land in the Light of 'Cross-Correspondence' Scripts of the Society for Psychical Research."  Yeats-Eliot Review 13.1-2 (1994): 7-16.

-----.  "Yeats, Joyce, Eliot and the Contemporary Revival of Cyclical Theories of History." AUMLA 69 (1988): 151-63.

Gooderham, Tim.  "Shakespeare and 'Tragedy' in The Waste Land.Critical Survey 3.2 (1991): 178-85.

Hargrove, Nancy D. and Paul Groottkerk.  "The Waste Land as a Surrealist Poem."  The Comparatist 19 (1995): 4-19.

Hawlin, Stefan.  "Eliot Reads The Waste Land: Text and Recording."  Modern Language Review 87.3 (1992): 545-54.

Heaney, Seamus.  "The Government of the Tongue."  Partisan Review 55.2 (1988): 292-308.

Houghton, R.L.  "The Waste Land Revisited."  Cambridge Quarterly 18.1 (1989): 34-62.

Jay, Gregory.  "Eliot's Poetics and the Fisher King."  Yeats-Eliot Review 7.1-2 (1982): 28-35.

Johnson, Anthony L.  "'Broken Images': Discursive Fragmentation and Paradigmatic Integrity in the Poetry of T.S. Eliot."  Poetics Today 6.3 (1985): 399-416.

Kaiser, Jo-Ellen Green.  "Discipling The Waste Land: Or, How to Lead Critics into Temptation." Twentieth-Century Literature 44.1 (1998): 82-99.

Keogh, J.G.  "O City, City: Oedipus in The Waste Land."  The Antigonish Review 69-70 (1987): 89-112.

Kinney, Clare R.  "Fragmentary Excess, Copious Dearth: The Waste Land as Anti-Narrative." Journal of Narrative Technique 17.3 (1987): 273-85.

Levenson, Michael.  "Does The Waste Land Have a Politics?"  Modernism/Modernity 6.3 (1999): 1-13.

Lindroth, Colette.  "The Waste Land Revisited: Sammy and Rosie Get Laid."  Literature Film Quarterly 17.2 (1989): 95-98.

Long, Michael.  "Eliot, Pound, Joyce: Unreal City."  Unreal City: Urban Experience in Modern European Literature and Art. Ed. Edward Timms and David Kelley. New York: St. Martin's, 1985. 144-57.

Longenbach, James.  "Hart Crane and T.S. Eliot: Poets in the Sacred Grove."  Denver Quarterly 23.1 (1988): 82-103.

Malamud, Randy.  "Frankenstein's Monster: The Gothic Voice in The Waste Land.English Language Notes 26.1 (1988): 41-45.

Mason, H.A.  "The Lithuanian Whore in The Waste Land."  Cambrisge Quarterly 18.1 (1989): 63-72.

Mayer, Sylvia.  "Assessments of the Urban Experience: Toni Morrison's Jazz and T.S. Eliot's The Waste Land."  Connotations 8.3 (1998/1999): 343-56.

Medcalf, Stephen.  "T.S. Eliot's 'Metamorphoses': Ovid and the Waste Land.Ovid Renewed: Ovidian Influences on Literature and Art from the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century. Ed. Charles Martindale. Cambridge: CUP, 1988. 223-46.

Mitchell, Giles.  "T.S. Eliot's TheWaste Land: Death Fear, Apathy, and Dehumanization." American Imago 43.1 (1986): 23-33.

Moi, Ruben.  "Multiple Variety in a Wilderness of Mirrors: T.S. Eliot's The Waste Land and the Critical Controversy It Spurs."  Nordlit 5 (1999): 207-27.

Monroe, William F.  "T.S. Eliot's Gnostic Impulse."  Literature and Theology 6.2 (1992): 191-206.

Moreland, Richard C. Learning from Difference: Teaching Morrison, Twain, Ellison, and Eliot.  Columbus: Ohio State UP, 1999.

Nanny, Max.  "'Cards Are Queer': A New Reading of the Tarot in The Waste Land.English Studies 62.4 (1981): 335-47.

-----.  "The Waste Land: A Menippean Satire?"  English Studies 66.6 (1985): 526-35.

Nevo, Ruth.  "The Waste Land: The Ur-Text of Deconstruction."  New Literary History 13.3 (1982): 453-61.

North, Michael.  Reading 1922: A Return to the Scene of the Modern.  New York: Oxford UP, 1999.

Oser, Lee.  "Eliot, Frazer, and the Mythology of Modernism."  The Southern Review 32.1 (1996): 183-85.

Pearce, Dan.  "Repetition, Compulsion, and 'Undoing': T.S. Eliot's 'Anxiety of Influence.'"  Mosaic 21.4 (1988): 45-54.

Perl, Jeffrey M.  "Penelope without Ulysses."  Southwest Review 76.4 (1991): 551-62.

Plett, Heinrich.  "'A Heap of Broken Images': Bilder des Kulturverfalls in T.S. Eliots The Waste Land." Englische und Amerikanische Naturdichtung im 20. Jahrhundert. Ed. Gunter Ahrends and Hans-Ulrich Seeber. Tübingen: Narr, 1985. 235-59.

Rainey, Lawrence.  "The Price of Modernism: Reconsidering the Publication of The Waste Land."  Critical Quarterly 31.4 (1989): 21-47.

-----.  "The Cultural Economy of Modernism." The Cambridge Companion to Modernism.  Ed. Michael Levenson. Cambridge: CUP, 1999. 33-69.

Reeves, Gareth.  "The Waste Land and the Aeneid.The Modern Language Review 82.3 (1987): 555-72.

Richardson, J.A.  Falling Towers: The Trojan Imagination in The Waste Land, The Dunciad, and  Speke Parrot.  Newark: U of Delaware P, 1992.

-----.  "Age and Youth in The Waste Land.English 39.165 (1990): 215-27.

Riquelme, John Paul.  "Withered Stumps of Time: Allusion, Reading, and Writing in The Waste Land." Denver Quarterly 15.4 (1981): 90-110.

Roessel, David.  "'Mr. Eugenides, the Smyrna Merchant,' and Post-War Politics in The Waste Land." Journal of Modern Literature 16.1 (1989): 171-76.

Ross, Andrew.  "The Waste Land and the Fantasy of Interpretation."  Representations 8 (1984): 134-58.

Rudat, Wolfgang.  "T.S. Eliot's Allusive Technique: Chaucer, Virgil, Pope."  Renascence 35.3 (1983): 167-82.

Scofield, Martin.  "Poetry's Sea-Changes: T.S. Eliot and The Tempest.Shakespeare Survey 43 (1991): 121-29.

Scott, Peter Dale.  "Pound in The Waste Land, Eliot in The Cantos.Paideuma 19.3 (1990): 99-114.

Scott, Robert Ian.  "T.S. Eliot and the Original Waste Land.University of Windsor Review 19.2 (1986): 61-64.

Sell, Roger.  "The Difficult Style of The Waste Land: A Literary-Pragmatic Perspective on Modernist Poetry."  Twentieth Century Poetry: From Text to Context. Ed. Peter Verdonk. London: Routledge, 1993. 134-58.

Sicker, Philip.  "The Belladonna: Eliot's Female Archetype in The Waste Land.Twentieth Century Literature 30.4 (1984): 420-31.

Smith, Grover.  The Waste Land.  Unwin Critical Library. London: Allen & Unwin, 1983.

Spurr, David.  "The Waste Land: Mourning, Writing, Disappearance."  Yeats-Eliot Review 9.4 (1988): 161-64.

Steiner, Wendy.  "Collage or Miracle: Historicism in a Deconstructed World."  Reconstructing American Literary History. Ed. Sacvan Bercovitch. Harvard Studies in English 13. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1986. 323-51.

Stockton, Sharon.  "T.S. Eliot and the Rape of God."  Texas Studies in Literature and Language 39.4 (1997): 375-98.

Surette, Leon.  The Birth of Modernism: Ezra Pound, T.S. Eliot, W.B. Yeats, and the Occult. Montreal: McGill-Queen's UP, 1993.

Tate, Alison.  "The Master-Narrative of Modernism: Discourses of Gender and Class in The Waste Land." Literature and History 14.2 (1988): 160-71.

Trosman, Harry.  "T.S. Eliot and The Waste Land: Psychopathological Antecedents and Transformations." Psychoanalytic Studies of Biography. Ed. George Moraitis and George H. Pollock. Emotions and Behavior Monographs 4. Madison, CT: Internat. University P, 1987. 191-218.

Trotter, David.  "Modernism and Empire: Reading The Waste Land.Critical Quarterly 28.1-2 (1986): 143-53.

Waldron, Philip.  "The Music of Poetry: Wagner in The Waste Land."  Journal of Modern Literature 18.4 (1993): 421-34.

Whitworth, Michael.  "'Sweet Thames' and The Waste Land'sAllusions."  Essays in Criticism 48.1 (1998): 35-58.

Wiznitzer, Eileen R.  "Legends of Lil: The Repressed Thematic Center of The Waste Land.Women's Studies 13.1-2 (1986): 87-102.

Worthen, William B.  "Eliot's Ulysses." Twentieth Century Literature 27.2 (1981): 166-77.

Wright, Anne.  Literature of Crisis, 1910-1922: Howard's End, Heartbreak House, Women in Love and The Waste Land.  New York: St. Martin's, 1984.

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5. Ted Hughes's Crow

Bentley, Paul.  "Depression and Ted Hughes's Crow, or Through the Looking Glass and What the Crow Found There." Twentieth Century Literature 43.1 (1997): 27-40.

Bradshaw, Graham.  "The Hughes's Crow as Trickster Hero."  The Fool and the Trickster: Studies in Honour of Enid Welsford.  Cambridge: Brewer; Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1992. 83-108.

Erzgräber, Willi.  "Die Welt aus der Perspektive einer Krähe: Zu Ted Hughes' Crow (1970)." Englische und amerikanische Naturdichtung im 20. Jahrhundert. Ed. Günther Ahrends and Hans-Ulrich Seeber. Tübingen: Narr, 1985. 151-70.

Haberer, Adolphe.  "De Howls in the Rain a Crow: Oiseaux et betes mythologiques dans la poesie de Ted Hughes." Etudes Anglaises 44.4 (1991): 413-27.

Kirkham, Michael.  "Ted Hughes' Crow." Sphinx 3 (1975): 51-56.

Martin, Hernandez and Jaime Jose.  " Ecologia en Crow de Ted Hughes."  Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses 19/20 (1989/1990): 233-40.

McKay, Donald F.  "Animal Music: Ted Hughes's Progress in Speech and Song."  English Studies in Canada 7.1 (1981): 81-92.

Montgomery, Mary Ann.  "Musical and Poetical Structures in Olivier Messiaen's Coleurs de la Cite Celeste and Ted Hughes's Crow."  DAI 50.8 (1990): 2279A.

Novak, Robert.  "Ted Hughes' Crow: Incarnation of the Universe."  WIndless Orchard 21 (1975): 40-42.

Satterfield, Ben.  "Blood, Havoc, and Vision: The Achievement of Crow.New Orleans Review 8.1 (1981): 77-80.

Scigaj, Leonard M.  "Genetic Memory and the Three Traditions of Crow."  Perspectives on Contemporary Literature 9 (1983): 83-91.

Weatherhead, A.K.  "Ted Hughes, Crow, and Pain."  Texas Quarterly 19.3 (1976): 95-108.

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6. Robert Kroetsch's Seed Catalogue

Adam, Ian.  "The Home Triptych via Modernism and Post-Modernism: Naipaul and Kroetsch."  Kunapipi 9.2 (1987): 64-79.

Arnason, David.  "Robert Kroetsch's Seed Catalogue: The Deconstruction of the Meta-Narrative of the Cowboy."  Contemporary Manitoba Writers: New Critical Studies. Ed. Kenneth James Hughes. Winnipeg: Turnstone, 1990. 79-92.

Banting, Pamela.  "Robert Kroetsch's Translation Poetics: Questions of Composition in the (Rosetta) 'Stone Hammer Poem' and Seed Catalogue."  West Coast Line 27.1 (1993): 92-107.

Campbell, Wanda.  "Strange Plantings: Robert Kroetsch's Seed Catalogue."  Studies in Canadian Literature/Etudes en Litterature Canadienne 21.1 (1996): 17-36.

Hill, Gerald.  "Reading in Completed Field Notes."  Textual Studies in Canada/Etudes Textuelles au Canada 3 (1993): 99-110.

Jones, Manina.  "Rooting the Borrowed Word: Appropriation and Voice in Kroetsch's Seed Catalogue." Inside the Poem: Essays and Poems in Honour of David Stephens. Ed. W.N. New. Toronto: Oxford UP, 1992. 113-22.

Kamboureli, Smaro. On the Edge of Genre: The Contemporary Canadian Long Poem.  Theory/Culture 5. Toronto: UTP, 1991.

Neuman, Shirley.  "Allow Self, Portraying Self: Autobiography in Field Notes."  Line 2 (1983): 104-21.

-----.  "Figuring the Reader, Figuring the Self in Field Notes: 'Double or Noting.'" Open Letter 8/9 (1984): 176-94.

Reimer, Douglas.  "Heideggerian Elements in Robert Kroetsch's 'Seed Catalogue.'"  Canadian Literature 136 (1993): 115-28.

Ricou, Laurie.  "Prairie Poetry and Metaphors of Plain/s Space."  Great Plains Quarterly 3.2 (1983): 109-19.

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7. Ezra Pound's Mauberley

Adams, Stephen J.  "Irony and Common Sense: The Genre of Mauberley."  Paideuma 18.1-2 (1989): 147-60.

Bacigalupo, Massimo.  "Art and Artists in Ezra Pound's Mauberley.Poetry and the Fine Arts: Papers from the Poetry Sessions of the European Association for American Studies Biennial Conf., Rome 1984. Ed. Roland Hagenbuchle and Jacqueline D. Ollier. Eichstätter Beiträge 24; Abt. Sprache und Literatur 8. Regensburg: Pustet, 1989. 14-20.

Bell, Ian F.A.  "In the Real Tradition: Edgar Lee Masters & Hugh Selwyn Mauberley." Criticism 23.2 (1981): 141-54.

Buning, Marius.  "Ezra Pound in the Lowlands."  Paideuma 17.1 (1988): 147-50.

Bush, Ronald.  "'It Draws One to Consider Time Wasted': Hugh Selwyn Mauberley." American Literary History 2.1 (1990): 56-78.

Caraher, Brian G.  "Reading Pound with Bakhtin: Sculpting the Social Languages of Hugh Selwyn Muberley's 'Mere Surface.'"  MLQ 49.1 (1988): 38-64.

Casillo, Robert.  "Pound and Mauberley: The Eroding Difference."  Papers on Language and Literature 21.1 (1985): 43-63.

Doreski, William.  "Mauberley: The Single Voice."  Paideuma 19.1-2 (1990): 111-23.

Gardner, Traci.  "Pound's Hugh Selwyn Mauberley."  Explicator 44.3 (1986): 46-48.

Goske, Daniel.  "Ein Pound Deutsch? Zur übersetzerischen Metamorphose von Hugh Selwyn Mauberley." Die Rezeption europäischer und amerikanischer Lyrik in Deutschland. Ed. Christine Fischer and Ulrich Steltner. Frankfurt: Lang, 1997. 71-97.

Grieve, Thomas F.  "Pound's Other Homage: Hugh Selwyn Mauberley."  Paideuma 27.1 (1998): 9-30.

Hurley, Pamela.  "Ezra Pound's 'Yeux Glauques'."  Paideuma 22.1-2 (1993): 191-200.

Jospeh, Terri Brint.  "The Decentered Center of Ezra Pound's Hugh Selwyn Mauberley." REAL 1 (1982): 121-51.

Lanti, Barbara.  "Lives and Contacts: Dante, Eliot, Pound."  Letture Classensi 14 (1985): 79-98.

Matthias, John.  "From Mauberley to Middagh Street: Ways of Meeting the British." PN Review 20.5 (1994): 44-47.

Meyer, Sandra.  "Hugh Selwyn Mauberley: The 'Sculpture' of Rhyme."  Paideuma 27.1 (1998): 109-14.

Miller, Vincent.  "Mauberley and His Critics."  ELH 57.4 (1990): 961-76.

Nicholls, Peter.  "'A Consciousness Disjunct': Sex and the Writer in Ezra Pound's Hugh Selwyn Mauberley." Journal of American Studies 28.1 (1994): 28.1 (1994): 61-75.

Reising, Russell J.  "Condensing the James Novel: The American in Hugh Selwyn Mauberley." Journal of Modern Literature 15.1 (1988): 17-34.

Rogers, Shef.  "How Many Ts Had Ezra Pound's Printer?"  Studies in Bibliography 49 (1996): 277-83.

Sabbadini, Silvano.  "'Make It New': Il Mauberley di Pound e The Waste Land di Eliot."  Modernismo/Modernismi: Dall'avanguardia storica agli anni Trenta e oltre. Ed. Giovanni Cianci. Milan: Principato, 1991. 361-79.

Scobie, Stephen.  "Eye-Deep in Hell: Ezra Pound, Timothy Findley, and Hugh Selwyn Mauberley." Essays on Canadian Writing 5 (1984/1985): 206-27.

Sherry, Vincent.  "From the Twenties to the Nineties: Pound, Beerbohm, and the Making of Mauberley." PN Review 20.5 (1994): 40-42.

Suhnel, Rudolf.  "Ezra Pounds Hugh Selwyn Mauberley und die Krise der europäischen Kultur." Tradition und Innovation in der englischen und amerikanischen Lyrik des 20. Jahrhunderts. Ed. Karl Josef Holtgen et al. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1986. 56-80.

Witemeyer, Hugh.  "'Of Kings' Treasures': Pound's Allusions to Ruskin in Hugh Selwyn Muberley." Paideuma 15.1 (1986): 23-31.

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8. Derek Walcott's Omeros

Austin, Norman.  "Homer and the Sunrise in Derek Walcott's Omeros."  Classical World 93.1 (1999): 29-42.

Burian, Peter.  "'All That Greek Manure under the Green Bananas': Derek Walcott's Odyssey." South Atlantic Quarterly 96.2 (1997): 359-77.

Burnett, Paula.  "The Ulyssean Crusoe and the Quest for Redemption in J. M. Coetzee's Foe and Derek Walcott's Omeros.Robinson Crusoe: Myths and Metamorphoses. Ed. Lieve Spaas and Brian Stimpson. New York: St. Martin's, 1996. 239-55.

Burris, Sidney.  "An Empire of Poetry." Postcolonial Literatures: Achebe, Ngugi, Desai, Walcott. Ed. Michael Parker and Roger Starkey. New York: St. Martin's, 1995. 259-68.

Collins, Loretta.  "'We Shall All Heal': Ma Kilman, the Obeah Woman, as Mother-Healer in Derek Walcott's Omeros."  Literature and Medicine 14.1 (1995): 146-62.

Davis, Gregson.  "'Pastoral Sites': Aspects of Bucolic Transformation in Derek Walcott's Omeros." Classical World 93.1 (1999): 43-49.

Davis, Gregson.  "'With No Homeric Shadow': The Disavowal of Epic in Derek Walcott's Omeros." South Atlantic Quarterly 96.2 (1997): 323-33.

Dougherty, Carol.  "Homer after Omeros: Reading a H/Omeric Text."  South Atlantic Quarterly 96.2 (1997): 335-57.

Farrell, Joseph.  "Walcott's Omeros: The Classical Epic in a Postmodern World."  South Atlantic Quarterly 96.2 (1997): 247-73. Rpt. in:  Epic Traditions in the Contemporary World: The Poetics of Community. Ed. Margaret Beissinger, Jane Tylus, and Susanne Wofford. Berkeley: U of Claifornia P, 1999. 270-96.

Figueroa, John J.  "The Sea Still Going On: Derek Walcott's Omeros."  Fusion of Cultures? Ed. Peter O. Stummer and Christopher Blame. Cross-Cultures 26. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1996. 257-67.

Fokkema, Aleid.  "On the (False) Idea of Exile: Derek Walcott and Grace Nichols."  (Un)Writing Empire. Ed. Theo D'haen. Cross-Cultures 30. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1998.

Gidmark, Jill B.  "Derek Walcott's Omeros: Re-Configuring Myth for a New World."  Nationalism and Sexuality: Crises of Identity. Ed. Yiorgos Kalogeras and Domna Pastourmatzi. American Studies in Greece 2. Thessaloniki: Hellenic Assoc. of American Studies, Aristotle University, 1996. 97-104.

----- and Anthony Hunt.  "Catherine Weldon: Derek Walcott's Visionary Telling of History." CEA 59.1 (1996): 8-20.

Hamner, Robert D.  Epic of the Dispossessed: Derek Walcott's Omeros.  Columbia: U of Missouri P, 1997.

Hoegberg, David E.  "The Anarchist's Mirror: Walcott's Omeros and the Epic Tradition." Commonwealth Essays and Studies 17.2 (1995): 67-81.

Hofmeister, Timothy.  "'This Is We Calypso': An Ithacan and Antillean Topos in Derek Walcott's Omeros." Classical World 93.1 (1999): 51-70.

Kessler, Joyce.  "All the Horned Island's Birds: The Transformative African Symbols of Walcott's Omeros." Arkansas Review 5.1-2 (1996): 1-9.

Lernout, Geert.  "Derek Walcott's Omeros: The Isle Is Full of Voices."  Kunapipi 14.2 (1992): 90-104.

Mair, Christian.  "'A Negro Epic in America' oder ein Versepos fur die postkoloniale Welt? Zu Derek Walcotts Omeros."  Literaturwissenschaftliches Jahrbuch im Auftrage der Görres Gesellschaft 40 (1999): 305-30.

Martyniuk, Irene.  "The Irish in the Caribbean: Derek Walcott's Examination of the Irish in Omeros." South Carolina Review 32.1 (1999): 142-48.

McClure, Charlotte S.  "Helen of the 'West Indies': History or Poetry of a Caribbean Realm." Studies in the Literary Imagination 26.2 (1993): 7-20.

Minkler, Julie A.  "Helen's Caliban: A Study of Gender Hierarchy in Derek Walcott's Omeros." World Literature Today 67.2 (1993): 272-76.

Morrison, James V.  "Homer Travels to the Caribbean: Teaching Walcott's Omeros." Classical World 93.1 (1999): 83-99.

Ramazani, Jahan.  "The Wound of History: Walcott's Omeros and the Postcolonial Poetics of Affliction." PMLA 112.3 (1997): 405-17.

Reiss, Timothy J.  "Caribbean Knights: Quijote, Galahad, and the Telling of History."  Studies in the Novel 29.3 (1997): 297-322.

Sampietro, Luigi.  "Derek Walcott on Omeros: An Interview."  Caribana 3 (1992/1993): 31-44.

Thieme, John.  "After Greenwich: Crossing Meridians in Post-Colonial Literatures."  The Contact and the Culmination. Ed. Marc Delrez and Bendedicte Ledent. Liege: L3-Liege Language and Literature, 1997. 253-63.

Van Sickle, John B.  "The Design of Derek Walcott's Omeros."  Classical World 93.1 (1999): 7-27.

Walcott, Derek.  "Reflections on Omeros." South Atlantic Quarterly 96.2 (1997): 229-46.

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9. Walt Whitman's Song of Myself

Alegria, Fernando.  "Borges's Song of Myself."  The Cambridge Companion to Walt Whitman. Ed. Ezra Greenspan. Cambridge: CUP, 1995. 208-19.

Altieri, Charles.  "Spectacular Antispectacle: Ecstacy and Nationality in Whitman and His Heirs." American Literary History 11.1 (1999): 34-62.

Asselineau, Roger.  "Some Context for Song of Myself.Approaches to Teaching Whitman's Leaves of Grass. Ed. Donald D. Kummings. Approaches to Teaching World Literature 32. New York: MLA, 1990. 64-66.

Bauerlein, Mark.  "The Written Orator of Song of Myself: A Recent Trend in Whitman Criticism." Walt Whitman Review 3.3 (1986): 1-14.

Birmingham, William.  "Whitman's Song of the Possible American Self."  Cross-Currents 43.3 (1993): 341-57.

Byers, Thomas B.  What I Cannot Say: Self, Word, and World in Whitman, Stevens, and Merwin.  Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1990.

Cai, Zong qi.  "Hegel's Phenomenological Dialectic and the Structure of Whitman's Song of Myself." CLIO 16.4 (1987): 317-29.

Chard-Hutchinson, Martine.  "The Forms of Orality in  Song of Myself.Utopia in the Present Tense: Walt Whitman and the Language of the New World. Ed. Marina Camboni. Rome: Calamo, 1994. 163-69.

Clancy, Barbara M.  "'If He Be Not Himself the Age Transfigured': The Poet, the 'Cultivating Class,' and Whitman's 1855 Song of Myself.Wlat Whitman Quarterly Review 14.1 (1996): 21-38.

DeLancey, Mark.  "Texts, Interpretations, and Whitman's Song of Myself."  American Literature 61.3 (1989): 359-81.

Egan, Ken, Jr.  "Periodic Structure in Song of Myself.Walt Whitman Review 4.4 (1987): 1-8.

Erkkila, Betsy.  "Song of Myself and the Politics of the Body Erotic."  Approaches to Teaching Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass. Ed. Donald D. Kummings. Approaches to Teaching World Literature 32. New York: MLA, 1990. 56-63.

Frederickson, Robert S.  "Public Onanism: Whitman's Song of Himself."  MLQ 46.2 (1985): 143-60.

Gardner, Thomas.  Discovering Ourselves in Whitman: The Contemporary American Long Poem.  Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1989.

Gatta, John, Jr.  "Whitman's Re-Vision of Emersonian Ecstacy in Song of Myself."  Walt Whitman: Here and Now. Ed. Joann P. Krieg. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1985. 173-83.

Golden, Arthur.  "The Ending of the 1855 Version of Song of Myself."  Walt Whitman Review 3.4 (1986): 27-30.

Goodblatt, Chanita and Joseph Glickson.  "Cognitive Psychology and Whitman's Song of Myself." Mosaic 19.3 (1986): 83-90.

Gravil, Richard.  "'The Discharged Soldier' and 'the Runaway Slave': Wordsworth and the Definition of Walt Whitman."  Symbiosis 1.1 (1997): 48-68.

Haney, William S., II.  "Song of Myself: The Touch of Consciousness."  University of Mississippi Studies in English 2 (1981): 64-70.

Hardwig, Bill.  "Walt Whitman and the Epic Tradition: Political and Poetical Voices in Song of Myself." Walt Whitman Quarterly Review 17.4 (2000): 166-88.

Hollis, C. Carroll.  "Linguistic Features of Song of Myself."  Approaches to Teaching Whitman's Leaves of Grass.  Ed. Donald D. Kummings. Approaches to Teaching World Literature 32. New York: MLA, 1990.

Jehlen, Myra.  "Multitudes and Multicultures." After Consensus: Critical Challenge and Social Change in America. Ed. Hans Lofgren and Alan Shima. Gothenburg Studies in English 72. Goteburg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, 1998. 155-69.

Killingsworth, M. Jimmie.  "Whitman's I: Person, Persona, Self, Sign."  Approaches to Teaching Whitman's Leaves of Grass. Ed. Donald D. Kummings. Approaches to Teahing World Literature 32. New York: MLA, 1990. 28-40.

Levine, Herbert J.  "Union and Disunion in Song of Myself.American Literature 59.4 (1987): 570-89.

-----.  Song of Myself: as Whitman's American Bible."  MLQ 48.2 (1987): 145-61.

Link, Franz.  "Walt Whitman und Wilhelm Raabes Schulmeister Eyring 'singen sich selbst.'" Literaturwissenschaftliches Jahrbuch im Auftrag der Görres Gesellschaft 30 (1989): 324-26.

Mason, John B.  "The Poet-Reader Relationship in Song of Myself.Approaches to Teaching Whitman's Leaves of Grass."  Ed. Donald D. Kummings. Approaches to Teaching World Literature 32. New York: MLA. 41-48.

McMahon, William E.  "Grass and Its Mate in Song of Myself.South Atlantic Review 51.1 (1986): 41-55.

Miller, Edwin Haviland. Walt Whitman's Song of Myself: A Mosaic of Interpretations.  Iowa City: U of Iowa P, 1989.

Miller, James E.  "Walt Whitman: Song of Myself.Landmarks of American Writing. Ed. Hennig Cohen. New York: Basic Books, 1969. 144-56.

Navarro, Santiago Juan.  "Beyond the Myth of Narcissus: The Role of the Reader in Walt Whitman's Song of Myself.Atlantis 12.1 (1990): 109-14.

Neneve, Miguel.  "Whitman: The Prophet-Poet Announcing Anti-Puritan Belief: A Comment on Section 21 of Song of Myself." Estudos Anglo-Americanos 17/18 (1993/1994): 11-22.

Oerlemans, Onno.  "Representing the Kosmos: The 'Lyric Turn' in Whitman."  Walt Whitman Quarterly Review 12.3 (1995): 150-69.

Perlman, Jim, Ed Folsom, and Dan Campion, eds.  Walt Whitman: To Measure His Song.  Minneapolis: Holy Cow! P, 1981.

Phillips, Dana.  "Whitman and Genre: The Dialogic in Song of Myself.Arizona Quarterly 50.3 (1994): 31-58.

Postma, Pamela.  "Self-Marriage, Dream Children, and the Poetic Imagination: A New Reading of Whitman's 'Twenty-Eight Young Men.'"  American Transcendental Quarterly 61 (1986): 37-45.

Quinlan, Kieran.  "Sea and Sea-Shore in Song of Myself: Whitman's Liquid Theme." Literature and Lore of the Sea. Ed. Patricia Ann Carlson.  Costerus 52. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1986.

Sarracino, Carmine.  "Figures of Transcendence in Whitman's Poetry."  Walt Whitman Review 5.1 (1987): 1-11.

-----.  "Silence as Argument in Song of Myself.Studies in Mystical Literature 2.1 (1982): 35-59.

Scholnick, Robert J.  "'The Password Primeval': Whitman's Use of Science in Song of Myself," Studies in the American Renaissance (1986): 385-425.

Selby, Nick.  "Teaching Whitman's Song of Myself: Radical Poetics in the Classroom." Readerly-Writerly Texts 4.1 (1996): 63-83.

Shulman, Robert.  "Song of Myself: Whitman's Individualism and Market Society America." Lamar Journal of the Humanities 8.2 (1982): 18-25.

Smith, Gayle L.  "Reading Song of Myself: Assuming What Whitman Assumes."  American Transcendental Quarterly 6.3 (1992): 151-61.

Wardrop, Daneen.  "Whitman as Furtive Mother: The Supplementary Jouissance of the 'Ambushed Womb' in Song of Myself."  Texas Studies in Literature and Language 40.2 (1998): 142-57.

Warren, James Perrin.  "The 'Real Grammar': Deverval Style in Song of Myself."  American Literature 56.1 (1984): 1-16.

Zitter, Emmy Stark.  "Song of the Canon: Song of Solomon and Song of Myself. Walt Whitman Review 5.2 (1987): 8-15.

Zwicky, Fay.  "Speeches and Silences." Quadrant 27.5 (1983): 40-46.

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10. William Carlos Williams's Paterson

Barry, Nancy K.  "Epic History and the Lyric Impulse in the Paterson Manuscripts." WCWR 12.2 (1986): 1-8.

-----.  "The Fading Beautiful Thing of Paterson."  Twentieth Century Literature 35.3 (1989): 343-63.

Bertonneau, Thomas F.  "The Sign of Knowledge in Our Time: Violence, Man, and Language in Paterson, Book I (An Anthropoetics)."  WCWR 21.1 (1995): 33-51.

Beulens, Gert.  "The American Poet and His City: Crane, Williams and Olson: Perceptions of Reality in American Poetry (1930-1960)."  English Studies 73.3 (1992): 248-63.

Bremen, Brian A.  "'The Radiant Gist': 'The Poetry Hidden in the Prose' of Williams' Paterson." Twentieth Century Literature 32.2 (1986): 221-41.

Bove, Paul.  "The World and Earth of William Carlos Williams: Paterson as a 'Long Poem.'" Genre 11 (1978): 575-96.

Burbick, Joan.  "Grimaces of a New Age: The Postwar Poetry and Painting of William Carlos Williams and Jackson Pollock."  Boundary 2 10.3 (1982): 109-23.

Coles, Robert.  "Instances of Modernist Anti-Intellectualism."  Modernism Reconsidered. Ed. Robert Kiely and John Hildebidle. Harvard English Studies 11. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1983. 215-28.

Coles, Robert.  "William Carlos Williams." Raritan 6.3 (1987): 113-21.

Conarroe, Joel.  William Carlos Williams' Paterson: Language and Landscape.  Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1970.

Corseuil, Anelise R.  "Modernism and American History: William Carlos Williams' Rearticulation of American Culture." Estudos Anglo Americanos 17/18 (1993/94): 42-58.

Crawford, T. Hugh.  "Paterson, Memex, and Hypertext."  American Literary History 8.4 (1996): 665-82.

DeMuth, James.  "William Carlos Williams's Paterson: A Search for Language, a Recovery of Words."  The Library Chronicle 45.1-2 (1981): 150-66.

Dickie, Margaret.  "Williams Reading Paterson."  ELH 53.3 (1986): 653-71.

Diggory, Terence.  "The Reader in Williams and Brueghel: Paterson 5 and The Adoration of the Kings." Criticism 30.3 (1988): 349-73.

Donaldson, G. Morris.  "William Carlos Williams: Paterson, Books I and II."  West Coast Review 5.1 (1970): 3-10.

Donley, Carol.  "Einstein's Influence on Modern Poetry."  After Einstein: Proceedings of the Einstein Centennial Celebration at Memphis State University, 14-16 March 1979. Ed. Peter Barker and Cecil G. Shugart. Memphis: Memphis State UP, 1981. 213-19.

-----.  "Relativity and Radioactivity in William Carlos Williams' Paterson."  William Carlos Williams Newsletter 5.1 (1979): 6-11.

Easterbrook, Neil.  "'Somehow Disturbed at the Core': Words and Things in William Carlos Williams." South Central Review 11.3 (1994): 25-44.

Flinn, Anthony.  "'Laughing at the Names': The Blunting of Male Incursion in Paterson." WCWR 23.1 (1997): 15-43.

Furia, Philip.  "Paterson's Progress." Boundary 2 9.2 (1981): 31-49.

Gavin, William.  "How Things Go Wrong in Our Experience: John Dewey vs. Franz Kafka vs. William Carlos Williams." Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 35.1 (1999): 39-68.

Gilbert Sandra M.  "Purloined Letters: William Carlos Williams and 'Cress.'"  WCWR 11.2 (1985): 5-15.

Giorcelli, Christina.  "William Carlos Williams' Painterly Poems: Two Pictures from a Bruegel." Word and Image 4.1 (1988): 200-08.

----- and Maria Anita Stefanelli, eds. The Rhetorics of Love in the Collected Poems of William Carlos Williams.  Rome: Edizioni, 1993.

Graham, Theodora R.  "'Her Heigh Compleynte': The Cress Letters of William Carlos Williams' Paterson." Ezra Pound and William Carlos Williams: The University of Pennsylvania Conference Papers. Ed. Dabiel Hoffman. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1983. 164-93.

Gregory, Elizabeth.  "Figures of Williams's Modernist Ambivalence: Poetic Lineage and Lesbians in Paterson." WCWR 21.2 (1995): 37-58.

Grover-Rogoff, Jay.  "Hart Crane's Presence in Paterson."  WCWR 11.1 (1985): 20-29.

Gustafson, Richard. "William Carlos Williams' Paterson: A Map and Opinion."  College English 26 (1965): 532-34, 39.

Hall, Chris.  "Two Poems of Place: Williams' Paterson and Marlatt's Steveston." Canadian Review of American Studies/Revue Candienne d'Etudes Americaines 15.2 (1984): 141-57.

Holton, Milne.  "Prolegomenon to Paterson: William Carlos Williams' Introduction to By the Rivers of Babylon." Proof 5 (1977): 147-70.

Hurry, David.  "Shakespeare, Heroes, and Fools in William Carlos Williams' Paterson."  The Literary Review 25.3 (1982): 317-30.

-----.  "The Use of Freudian Dream Symbolism in William Carlos Williams' Paterson." Literature and Psychology 31.3 (1981): 16-20.

-----.  "William Carlos Williams' Paterson and Freud's Interpretation of Dreams." Literature and Psychology 28 (1978): 170-77.

Jameson, Frederic.  "Celine and Innocence." South Atlantic Quarterly 93.2 (1994): 311-19.

Janowitz, Anne.  "Paterson: An American Contraption."  William Carlos Williams: Man and Poet. Ed. Carroll F. Terrell. Man and Poet Series. Orono: National Poetry Foundation, U of Maine at Orno, 1983. 301-22.

Klink, William.  "Paterson Forty Years after Paterson."  Sagetrieb 6.1 (1987): 94-108.

Kolich, Augustus M.  "W. C. Williams' Paterson and the Poetry of Uncertainty."  Sagetrieb 6.1 (1987): 53-72.
Rogoff, Jay.  "Pound-Foolishness in Paterson."  Journal of Modern Literature 14.1 (1987): 35-44.

Kutzinski, Vera M.  "The Distant Closeness of Dancing Doubles: Sterling Brown and William Carlos Williams." Black American Literature Forum 16.1 (1982): 19-25.

Laughlin, James.  "William Carlos Williams and the Making of Paterson: A Memoir."  The Yale Review 71.2 (1982): 185-98.

Li, Victor P.H.  "The Vanity of Length: The Long Poem as Problem in Pound's Cantos and Williams' Paterson." Genre 19.1 (1986): 3-20.

Lloyd, Margaret Glynne. William Carlos Williams' Paterson: A Critical Reappraisal.  Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1979.

MacGowan, Christopher.  "William Carlos Williams."  The Columbia History of American Poetry. Ed. Jay Parini and Brett C. Miller. New York: Columbia UP, 1993. 395-418.

Mariani, Paul.  "On the 200th Anniversary of the Founding of Paterson, 1992."  WCWR 19.1-2 (1993): 81-87.

Marsh, Alec.  Money and Modernity: Pound, Williams, and the Spirit of Jefferson.  Tuscaloosa, AL: U of Alabama P, 1998.

Matthews, Kathleen.  "Competitive Giants: Satiric Bedrock in Book One of William Carlos Williams' Paterson." Journal of Modern Literature 12.2 (1985): 237-60.

Meyer, Kinereth.  "Possessing America: William Carlos William's Paterson and the Poetics of Appropriation." Mapping American Culture. Ed. Wayne Franklin and Michael Steiner. American Land and Life Series. Iowa City: U of Iowa P, 1992. 152-67.

Ostrom, Alan.  "The Functions of Names in the Mythopoeic Process in William Carlos Williams' Paterson." Literary Onomastics Studies 7 (1980): 161-76.

Philip, Jim.  "William Carlos Williams: Value and Form."  Modern American Poetry. Ed. R.W. Herbie Butterfield. Critical Studies Series. London: Vision; Totowa, NJ: Barnes & Noble, 1984. 58-76.

Poggi, Jeff and Sergio Rizzo.  "The Novel Poetry of Paterson."  Sagetrieb 12.1 (1993): 31-41.

Riddel, Joseph N.  "'Keep Your Pecker Up': Paterson Five and the Question of Metapoetry." Glyph 8 (1981): 203-31.

Rizzo, Sergio.  "The Other Girls of Paterson - Old and New."  WCWR 20.1 (1994): 38-60.

Rosenthal, M.L. and Sally M. Gall.  "William Carlos Williams' Paterson."  Sagetrieb 1.1 (1982): 13-47.

Roulston, Helen H.  "The Four Elements of Poetic Consciousness in William Carlos Williams' Paterson." South Dakota Review 17.1 (1979): 101-11.

Sayre, Henry M.  "The Enchained Dragon: Williams and the Optical Unconscious."  WCWR 22.1 (1996): 63-74.

Schmidt, Peter.  "Dada, Paterson, and Epic Tradition."  WCWR 8.2 (1982): 1-14.

Schricker, Gale C.  "The Case of Cress: Implications of Allusion in Paterson." WCWR 11.2 (1985): 16-29.

Scrimgeour, J.D.  "Coarse, Irregular Features: Prose in William Carlos Williams' Paterson." Connecticut Review 11.2 (1989): 64-77.

Sharpe, William.  "'That Complex Atom': The City and Form in William Carlos Williams's Paterson." Poesis 6.2 (1985): 65-93.

Sibley, Gay.  "Documents of Presumption: The Satiric Use of the Ginsberg Letters in William Carlos Williams' Paterson."
American Literature 55.1 (1983): 1-23.

Slatin, John M.  "'Something inescapably typical': Questions about Gender in the Late Work of William Carlos Williams and Marianne Moore."  WCWR 14.1 (1988): 86-103.

Somer, John.  "Gary Snyder's 'Burning the Small Dead' and William Carlos Williams."  Publications of the Missouri Philological Association 7 (1982): 1-4.

Stefanelli, Maria Anita.  "Aspetti sociolinguistici della poesia di William Carlos Williams." Letterature d'America 5.24-25 (1984): 223-41.

Sten, Christopher.  "William Carlos Williams: El Hombre at 100."  American Studies International 21.5 (1983): 53-60.

Tapscott, Stephen.  "Whitman in Paterson." American Literature 53.2 (1981): 291-301.

Ulrich, John.  "Giving Williams Some Credit: Money and Language in Paterson, Book Four, Part II; Prepared under the Auspices of Hofstra Univ."  Money: Lure, Lore, and Literature. Ed. John Louis DiGaetani. Contributions to the Study of World Literature 55. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1994. 121-29.

Unali, Lina.  "Italy, France and Spain in Paterson, by William Carlos Williams." Cross-Cultural Studies: American, Canadian and European Literatures: 1945-1985. Proc. of Symposium on Contemp. Lits. of United States of Amer. &
Can., Bled, Slovenia, Yugoslavia, 1988 May 9-14. Ed. Mirko Jurak. Ljubljana: English Department, 1988. 393-98.

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